Couple of bits of random speculation here.
Politics and government would have looked vastly different. Without the age of Enlightenment, you would certainly not have had the two great Republican Experiments that were strongly influenced by Enlightenment Thinking- so No, USA and No French Republic/ Revolution. This leaves Europe in the hands of Absolutist Monarchies for far longer, and since the last of these did not collapse until well into the 20th century, it’s a fair bet that some of them would still be around today.
No French Revolution, also means no Revolutionary wars and no Napoleon. This in turn means that the map of Europe doesn’t get completely remade in the late 1700s, Crucially, the random strokes of fortune that placed Prussia in the position to become a European power and unify all the little Germanies under its banner, all never happen, so it’s likely that another force becomes the dominant power in central Europe. Bavaria, maybe, or Saxony? Perhaps the Germans would be dominated by a resurgent kingdom of Bohemia, or from the north by a strong Kalmar Union.? The only thing that’s certain is that maps would look very different.
as for the age of exploration and Imperialism, this would still go ahead, but probably with different players and different final outcomes. Even before the start of the Enlightenment, the Portugese were pushing forward with their age of exploration inspired by Henry the Navigator. Perhaps that first Early mover advantage would remain, and the Portugese empire would not have been as readily supplanted by other powers, or again, with Europe not seeing the same history of turmoil, perhaps other countries would have reached outwards.