innocent of the heavy NSA surveillance
You can be free from, but not innocent of other people surveilling you.
There are fairly legitimate business reasons for the things you're saying are nefarious. They ask you to login to their services because they want that sweet, sweet user behaviour data (they are an advertising company). You don't have to give your real name to any company on the internet. Fuck their EULAs and whatever: Nothing on the net (except eshopping) has my real name.
You can choose to put in your number if you want (and almost certainly have to for some Android 2 factor auth functions) but in reality Google added that for user security because their gmail service was becoming a target for hacks (remember Palin getting her email broken into?). Reality is that if you're using any non-encrypted email service then the NSA or many other 3 letter acronym bodies can get copies of your email and there's a pretty good chance you emailed your phone number to someone at some point.
Google is building an infrastructure that can be used to keep a detailed track of the movements of millions of people (IP address, name, search term, confidential services)
As are a multitude of other companies. Credit card companies have been doing it for decades. Amazon has all those details PLUS your purchase history. Facebook are just evil turds who don't even deserve a mention.
Define "gladly". If you mean they'll abide by the idiotic patriot act you're right. What about the cases where they refuse to hand over data (which happens on a daily basis)? How do those factor into your definition of "gladly"?
People love to rail on Google because they're a big company and for many people they keep a hell of a lot of data on you. Thing is that they're also probably doing more to protect people's data than any other single company and, unlike Facebook, their updates usually improve default security, not degrade it. Also keep in mind that you don't have to use anything they make and if you personally find their behaviour unacceptable then don't use their free stuff. It's not hard.