The Russians, now Communist, were reforming the alphabet in Central Asia through the 20s and 30s, though they were using Cyrillic. There were a lot of bloody arguments about the G sound, if I remember correctly.
Another thing to consider, aside from printing, was telegraphy. Back then, the Morse Code was a real thing, and if you didn't have a latin alphabet, you had to resort to some ad hoc scheme. If you wanted to use a teletype machine, you had to latinize or invent your own. (Yes, the Japanese invented their own telegraphic schemes, but Japan was also industrializing in a way that Turkey was not.)
The Turks were always very progressive technologically. The cannon was invented in Europe, but the Turks were the great non-European cannon builders of the 15th & 16th centuries. They installed the first printing press in the Arab world.