Countries with higher levels of unionization have lower per-capita carbon footprints

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Less industry?

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Are we just effectively comparing European countries to India, China, and southeast Asia here? Correlation is not causation.

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The pessimist in me was wondering if their production numbers were just lower. Less making stuff, less emissions.

Better regulation I am sure is a contributing factor as well.

They used data from Europe, Isreal, South Korea, and the Americas.

country list: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States.


So the article isn’t saying that union membership is more important than industrial or other economic factors. In fact, industrialization and urbanization were the 2 biggest predictors of CO2 emissions per capita in their models.

What it is saying is that after factoring in those other variables there remains a significant negative correlation between union membership and emissions. The paper doesn’t explain their stats very well, but its a sizable effect.
As always: correlation does not indicate causation.


For what it’s worth…


Probably too late anyway based on new 2000 year study:

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