That's kind of difficult.
Even getting a stupid datasheet for a stupid higher-end sensor with a global shutter can be quite a nightmare. Not every vendor is thrilled by publishing them.
Avoid Sony. They have their heads so far up their posteriors that they can lick their own tonsils.
Also, re your original thought, try to think about the optics it'd need. Could turn out to be quite challenging.
(Thought... could an array of microlenses, and some image postprocessing, be helpful here? Something vaguely similar to what Lytro cams do?)