Iran and Saudi Arabia have been locked in a "Cold War" since 1979. Each trying to "out-Islamicist" each other. It wasn't until the end of the Soviet Union that much of it became apparent to the rest of the world. The Iran/Iraq War, Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, factional split among Palestinians, Syrian occupation of Lebanon and the Syrian Civil War all can be seen through the lens of both countries using proxies to grab power in the ME.
Israel has been in caught the middle of this since the Oslo Accords melted down in 1997. What few realized at the time was that the Iran/Saudi Cold War was a direct cause for it, playing out through the Fatah/Hamas conflict. Destroying the peace process and leading to civil war with the Palestinians.
"Saudi King Khaled however, did not react to the upheaval by cracking down on religious puritans in general, but by giving the ulama and religious conservatives more power over the next decade. He is thought to have believed that "the solution to the religious upheaval was simple - more religion."First, photographs of women in newspapers were banned, then women on television. Cinemas and music shops were shut down. School curriculum was changed to provide many more hours of religious studies, eliminating classes on subjects like non-Islamic history. Gender segregation was extended "to the humblest coffee shop". The religious police became more assertive."